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Music of the Renaissance

Renaissance music is European classical music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. Defining the beginning of the era is difficult, given the lack of abrupt shifts in musical thinking during the 15th century. Additionally, the process by which music acquired "Renaissance" characteristics was a gradual one, but 1400 is used here.

Style and trends

The increasing reliance on the interval of the third as a consonance is one of the most pronounced features of early Renaissance European art music (in the Middle Ages, thirds had been considered dissonances: see interval). Polyphony, in use since the 12th century, became increasingly elaborate with highly independent voices throughout the 14th century: the beginning of the 15th century showed simplification, with the voices often striving for smoothness. This was possible because of a greatly increased vocal range in music—in the Middle Ages, the narrow range made necessary frequent crossing of parts, thus requiring a greater contrast between them.

The modal (as opposed to tonal) characteristics of Renaissance music began to break down towards the end of the period with the increased use of root motions of fifths. This has since developed into one of the defining characteristics of tonality.

Genres

Principal liturgical forms which endured throughout the entire Renaissance period were masses and motets, with some other developments towards the end, especially as composers of sacred music began to adopt secular forms (such as the madrigal) for their own designs.

Common sacred genres were the mass, the motet, the madrigale spirituale, and the laude.

During the period, secular music had an increasingly wide distribution, with a wide variety of forms, but one must be cautious about assuming an explosion in variety: since printing made music more widely available, much more has survived from this era than from the preceding Medieval era, and probably a rich store of popular music of the late Middle Ages is irretrievably lost. Secular music included songs for one or many voices, forms such as the frottola, chanson and madrigal.

Secular vocal genres included the madrigal, the frottola, the caccia, the chanson in several forms (rondeau, virelai, bergerette, ballade, musique mesurée), the canzonetta, the villancico, the villanella, the villotta, and the lute song. Mixed forms such as the motet-chanson and the secular motet also appeared.

Purely instrumental music included consort music for recorder or viol and other instruments, and dances for various ensembles. Common genres were the toccata, the prelude, the ricercar, the canzona, and intabulation (intavolatura, intabulierung). Instrumental ensembles for dances might play a basse danse (or bassedanza), a pavane, a galliard, an allemande, or a courante. Towards the end of the period, the early dramatic precursors of opera such as monody, the madrigal comedy, and the intermedio are seen.

Much of this article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Renaissance music".

  • ABC Archive of Early Music
    Lute tablature using a language that notates tunes in an ASCII format.
  • Bodleian Library, Oxford: Broadside Ballads Project
    The Bodleian Library has unparalleled holdings of over 30,000 ballads in several major collections. The original printed materials range from the 16th- to the 20th-Century. The Broadside Ballads project makes the digitised copies of the sheets and ballads available to the research community.
  • ChoralWiki, home of the Choral Public Domain Library
    CPDL is one of the world's largest free sheet music sites. You can use CPDL to find scores, texts, translations, and information about composers, including Renaissance music composers.
  • Early Music - Classical Guitar Ensemble
    Recordings of 2, 3, 4 and 5-part songs and instrumental selections from the 14th - 17th Centuries.
  • Early Music Online
    The Early Music Online project has digitised 300 of the world’s earliest surviving volumes of printed music, using copies in the British Library, and has made these freely available online.
  • Early Music,Medieval, Renaissance Music History
    A guide to early music: medieval & renaissance music history. This guide is intended to provide the user with a selective list of reference tools for research into the history of medieval and renaissance music.
  • The Internet Renaissance Band
    Midi files of music from the Medieval and Renaissance periods, and ancient carols.
  • Medieval And Renaissance Instruments
    Comprehensive coverage on some of the more common musical instruments during the Renaissance period with in-depth/informative links.
  • Medieval Resource Center
    A comprehensive resource center on medieval armor, art, clothing, food, torture methods, weapons, and more by Carolyn J. Todd.
  • Renaissance Sheet Music
    A comprehensive list of free sheet music by Renaissance composers.

Liturgical music & hymnology:

Online Music Resources